Wednesday, February 18, 2009

Cornelieus Agrippa First Book of Occult Philosophy

Here is part two of the series, with Chapters 10 to 20
Read Part one of the Grimoire - The First book of Occult Philosophy - Cornelius Agrippa
Chap. xi. How Occult Vertues are infused into the severall kinds of things by Idea's, through the help of the Soul of the World, and rayes of the Stars: and what things abound most with this Vertue.

Platonists say that all inferiour bodies are exemplified by the superiour Ideas. Now they define an Idea to be a form, above bodies, souls, minds, and to be one, simple, pure, immutable, indivisible, incorporeal, and eternall: and that the nature of all Idea's is the same. Now they place Idea's in the first place in very goodness it self (i.e.) God, by way of cause; and that they are distinguished amongst themselves by some relative considerations only, least whatsoever is in the world, should be but one thing without any variety, and that they agree in essence, least God should be a compound substance. In the second place, they place them in the very intelligible it self (i.e.) in the Soul of the world, differing the one from the other by absolute forms, so that all the Idea's in God indeed are but one form: but in the Soul of the world they are many. They are placed in the minds of all other things, whether they be joyned to the body, or separated from the body, by a certain participation, and now by degrees are distinguished more, and more. They place them in nature, as certain small seed of forms infused by the Idea's, and lastly they place them in matter, as Shadows. Hereunto may be added, that in the Soul of the world there be as many Seminal Forms of things, as Idea's in the mind of God, by which forms she did in the Heavens above the Stars frame to her self shapes also, and stamped upon all these some properties; on these Stars therefore, shapes, and properties, all vertues of inferiour species, as also their properties do depend; so that every species hath its Celestiall shape, or figure that is sutable [suitable] to it from which also proceeds a wonderfull power of operating, which proper gift it receives from its own Idea, through the Seminal forms of the Soul of the world. For Idea's are not only essential causes of every species, but are also the causes of every vertue, which is in the species: and this is that which many Philosophers say, that the properties which are in the nature of things (which vertues indeed are the operations of the Idea's) are moved by certain vertues, viz. such as have a certain, and sure foundation, not fortuitous, nor casuall, but efficacious, powerfull, and sufficient, doing nothing in vain. Now these Vertues do not err in their actings, but by accident, viz. by reason of the impurity, or inequality of the matter: For upon this account there are found things of the same species, more, or less powerful, according to the purity, or indisposition of thematter; for all Celestial Influences may be hindred by the indisposition, and insufficiency of the matter. Whence it was a Proverb amongst the Platonists, That Celestial Vertues were infused according to the desert of the matter:
Which also Virgil makes mention of, when he sings,Their natures fiery are, and from above, And from gross bodies freed, divinely move.

Wherefore those things in which there is less of the Idea of the matter (i.e.) such things which have a greater resemblance of things separated, have more powerfull vertues in operation, being like to the operation of a separated Idea. We see then that the situation, and figure of Celestials is the cause of all those excellent Vertues, that are in inferiour species.

Chap. xii. How it is that particular Vertues are infused into particular Individuals, even of the same Species.There are also in many Individuals, or particular things, peculiar gifts, as wonderfull, as in the species, and these also are from the figure, and situation of Celestiall Stars. For every Individuall, when it begins to be under a determined Horoscope, and Celestiall Constellation, Contracts together with its essence a certain wonderfull vertue both of doing, and suffering something that is remarkable, even besides that which it receives from its species, and this it doth partly by the influence of the Heaven, and partly through that obedientialness of the matter of things to be generated, to the Soul of the World, which obedientialness indeed is such as that of our bodies to our souls. For we perceive that there is this in us, that according to our conceptions of things, our bodies are moved, and that cheerfully, as when we are afraid of, or fly from any thing. So many times when the Celestiall souls conceive several things, then the matter is moved obedientially to it: Also in Nature there appear divers prodigies, by reason of the imagination of superiour motions. So also they conceive, & imagine divers vertues, not only things naturall, but also sometimes things artificial, and this especially if the Soul of the operator be inclined towards the same. Whence Avicen saith, that whatsoever things are done here, must have been before in the motions, and conceptions of the Stars, and Orbes. So in things, various effects, inclinations, and dispositions are occasioned not only from the matter variously disposed, as many suppose, but from a various influence, and diverse form; not truly with a specifical difference, but peculiar, and proper. And the degrees of these are variously distributed by the first Cause of all things, God himself, who being unchangeable, distributes to every one as he pleaseth, with whom notwithstanding second Causes, Angelical and Celestial, cooperate, disposing of the Corporeal matter, and other things that are committed to them. All vertues therefore are infused by God, through the Soul of the World, yet by a particular power of resemblances, and intelligences over-ruling them, and concourse of the rayes, and aspects of the Stars in a certain peculiar harmonious consent.

Chap. xiii. Whence the Occult Vertues of things proceed.It is well known to all, that there is a Certain vertue in the Loadstone, by which it attracts Iron, and that the Diamond doth by its presence take away that vertue of the Loadstone: so also Amber, and jeat [jet] rubbed, and warmed draw a straw to them, and the Stone Asbestus [asbestos] being once fired is never, or scarce extinguished: a Carbuncle shines in the dark, the Stone Aetites put above the young fruit of Women, or Plants, strengthens them, but being put under, causeth abortion; the Jasper stencheth [stauncheth] blood; the litle fish Echeneis stops the ships: Rhubarb expels choller [choler]; the liver of the Camelion [Chameleon] burnt, raiseth showers, and thunders. The Stone Heliotrope dazles [dazzles] the sight, and makes him that wears it to be invisible, the Stone Lyucurius takes away delusions from before the eyes, the perfume of the Stone Lypparis cals forth all the beasts, the Stone Synochitis brings up infernal Ghosts, the Stone Anachitis makes the images of the Gods appear. The Ennecis put under them that dream, causeth Oracles. There is an Hearb [herb] in Æthiopia [Ethiopia], with which they report ponds, and lakes are dryed [dried] up, and all things that are shut, to be opened; and we read of an Hearb [herb] called Latace which the Persian Kings give to their Embassadours, that whithersoever they shall come, they shall abound with plenty of all things. There is also a Scythian Hearb [herb], with which being tasted, or at least held in the mouth, they report the Scythians will endure twelve dayes hunger, and thirst; and Apuleius saith, that he was taught by an Oracle that there were many kinds of Hearbs [herbs], and Stones, with which men might prolong their lives for ever, but that it was not lawfull for men to understand the knowledge of those things, because, whereas they have but a short time to live, they study mischief with all their might, and attempt all manner of wickedness; if they should be sure of a very long time, they would not spare the Gods themselves. But from whence these vertues are, none of all these have shewed, who have set forth huge Volumes of the properties of things, not Hermes, not Bochus, not Aaron, not Orpheus, not Theophrastus, not Thebith, not Zenothemis, not Zoroaster, not Evax, not Dioscorides, not Isaaick the Jew, not Zacharias the Babilonian [Babylonian], not Albertus, not Arnoldus; and yet all these have confessed the same, that Zacharias writes to Mithridites, that great power, and humane destinies are couched in the vertues of Stones and Hearbs [herbs]. But to know from whence these come, a higher speculation is required. Alexander the peripateticke not going any further then his senses, and qualities, is of the opinion that these proceed from Elements, and their qualities, which haply might be supposed to be true, if those were of the same species; but many of the operations of the Stones agree neither in genere, nor specie. Therefore Plato, and his Schollers [scholars] attribute these vertues to Idea's, the formers of things. But Avicen reduceth these kinds of operations to Intelligencies, Hermes to the Stars, Albertus to the specificall forms of things. And although these Authors seem to thwart one the other, yet none of them, if they be rightly understood, goes beside the truth: since all their sayings are the same in effect in most things. For God in the first place is the end, and begining of all Vertues, he gives the seal of the Idea's to his servants the Intelligencies; who as faithfull officers sign all things intrusted [entrusted] to them with an IdealVertue, the Heavens, and Stars, as instruments, disposing the matter in the mean while for the receiving of those forms which reside in Divine Majesty (as saith Plato in Timeus) and to be conveyed by Stars; and the Giver of forms distributes them by the Ministry of his Intelligencies, which he hath set as Rulers, and Controllers over his Works, to whom such a power is intrusted in things committed to them, that so all Vertues of Stones, Hearbs [herbs], Metals, and all other things may come from the Intelligencies, the Governours. The Form therefore, and Vertue of things comes first from the Idea's, then from the ruling, and governing Intelligencies, then from the aspects of the Heavens disposing, and lastly from the tempers of the Elements disposed, answering the influencies of the Heavens, by which the Elements themselves are ordered, or disposed. These kinds of operations therefore are performed in these inferiour things by express forms, and in the Heavens by disposing vertues, in Intelligencies by mediating rules, in the original Cause by Idea's, and exemplary forms, all which must of necessity agree in the execution of the effect, and vertue of every thing.

There is therefore a wonderfull vertue, and operation in every Hearb [herb] and Stone, but greater in a Star, beyond which, even from the governing Intelligencies every thing receiveth, and obtains many things for it self, especially from the Supream Cause, with whom all things do mutually, and exactly correspond, agreeing in an harmonious consent, as it were in Hymnes, alwaies praising the highest Maker of all things, as by the three Children in the fiery furnace were all things called upon to praise God with singings. Bless ye the Lord all things that grow upon the Earth, and all things which move in the Waters, all fowls of the Heavens, Beasts, and Cattle, together with the sons of men. There is therefore no other cause of the necessity of effects, then the connexion [connection] of all things with the first Cause, and their correspondency with those Divine patterns, and eternall Idea's, whence every thing hath its determinate, and particular place in the exemplary world, from whence it lives, and receives its originall being; And every vertue of Hearbs [herbs], Stones, Metals, Animals, Words, and Speeches, and all things that are of God, is placed there. Now the first Cause, which is God, although he doth by Intelligencies, and the Heavens work upon these inferiour things, doth sometimes (these Mediums being laid aside, or their officiating being suspended) works those things immediatly by himself, which works then are called Miracles: But whereas secondary causes, which Plato, and others call handmaids, do by the Command, and appointment of the first Cause, necessarily act, and are necessitated to produce their effects, if God shall notwithstanding according to his pleasure so discharge, and suspend them, that they shall wholly desist from the necessity of that Command, and appointment; then they are called the greatest Miracles of God. So the fire in the Chaldeans furnace did not burn the Children: So also the Sun at the Command of Joshua went back from its course the space of one whole day; so also at the prayer of Hezekiah it went back ten degrees, or hours. So when Christ was Crucified the Sun was darkened, though at full Moon: And the reasons these operations can by no rationall discourse, no Magick, or occult, or profound Science whatsoever be found out, or understood, but are to be learned, and inquired into by Divine Oracles only.
Chap. xiv. Of the Spirit of the World, what it is, and how by way of medium it unites occult Vertues to their subjects.Democritus and Orpheus, and many Pythagorians having most diligently searched into the vertues of Celestiall thingand natures of inferior things, said, That all things are full of God, and not without cause: For there is nothing of such transcending vertues, which being destitute of Divine assistance, is content with the nature of it self. Also they called those Divine Powers which are diffused in things, Gods: which Zoroaster called Divine allurements, Synesius Symbolicall inticements, others called them Lives, and some also Souls, saying, that the vertues of things did depend upon these; because it is the property of the Soul to be from one matter extended into divers things, about which it operates: So is a man, who extends his intellect unto intelligible things, and his imagination untoimaginable things; and this is that which they understood, when they said, viz. That the Soul of one thing went out, and went into another thing, altering it, and hindering the operations of it: As the Diamond hinders the operation of the Loadstone, that it cannot attract Iron.

Now seeing the Soul is the first thing that is moveable, and as they say, is moved of it self; but the body, or the matter is of it self unable, and unfit for motion, and doth much degenerate from the Soul, therefore they say there is need of a more excellent Medium, viz. Such a one that may be as it were no body, but as it were a Soul, or as it were no Soul, but as it were a body, viz. by which the soul may be joyned to the body. Now they conceive such a medium to be the spirit of the World, viz. that which we call the quintessence: because it is not from the four Elements, but a certain first thing, having its being above, and besides them. There is therefore such a kind of spirit required to be, as it were the medium, whereby Celestiall Souls are joyned to gross bodies, and bestow upon them wonderfull gifts. This spirit is after the same manner in the body of the world, as ours is in the body of man. For as the powers of our soul are communicated to the members of the body by the
spirit, so also the Vertue of the Soul of the World is diffused through all things by the quintessence: For there is nothing found in the whole world, that hath not a spark of the Vertue thereof. Yet it is more, nay most of all infused into those things which have received, or taken in most of this spirit: Now this spirit is received or taken in by the rayes of the Stars, so far forth as things render themselves conformable to them. By this spirit therefore every occult property is conveyed into Hearbs [herbs], Stones, Metals, and Animals, through the Sun, Moon, Planets, and through Stars higher then the Planets. Now this spirit may be more advantageous to us, if any one knew how to separate it from the Elements: or at least to use those things chiefly, which do most abound with this spirit. For these things, in which this spirit is less drowned in a body, and less checked by matter, do more powerfully, and perfectly act, and also more readily generate their like: for in it are all generative, & seminary Vertues. For which cause the Alchymists [alchemists] endeavour to separate this spirit from Gold, and Silver; which being rightly separated, and extracted, if thou shalt afterward project upon any matter of the same kind (i.e.) any Metall, presently will turn it into Gold, or Silver. And we know how to do that, and have seen it done: but we could make no more Gold, then the weight of that was, out of which we extracted the spirit. For seeing that is an extense form, and not intense, it cannot beyond its own bounds change and imperfect body into a perfect: which I deny not, but may be done by another way.
Chap. xv. How we must find out, and examine the Vertues of things by way of similitude.It is now manifest that the occult properties in things are not from the nature of the Elements, but infused from above, hid from our senses, and scarce at last known by our reason, which indeed come from the Life, and the Spirit of the World, through the rayes of the Stars: and can no otherwise but by experience, and conjecture be enquired into by us.

Wherefore, he that desires to enter upon this study must consider, that every thing moves, and turns it self to its like, and inclines that to it self with all its might, as well in property, viz. Occult vertue, as in quality, viz. Elementary vertue. Sometimes also in substance it self, as we see in Salt, for whatsoever hath long stood with Salt, becomes Salt: for every agent, when it hath begun to act, doth not attempt to make a thing inferiour to it self, but as much as may be, like, and sutable [suitable] to it self. Which also we manifestly see in sensible Animals, in which the nutritive Vertue doth not change the meat into an Hearb [herb], or a Plant, but turns it into sensible flesh. In what things therefore there is an excess of any quality, or property, as heat, cold, boldness, fear, sadness, anger, love, hatred, or any other passion, or Vertue; whether it be in them by nature, or sometimes also by art, or chance, as boldness in a harlot; these things do very much move, and provoke to such a quality, passion, or Vertue. So Fire moves to Fire, and Water moves to Water, and be that is bold moves to boldness. And it is well known amongst Physitians [physicians], that brain helps the brain, and lungs, the lungs. So also it is said, that the right eye of a Frog helps the soreness of a mans right eye, and the left eye thereof helps the soreness of his left eye, if they be hanged about his neck in a Cloth of its naturall Colour: The like is reported of the eyes of a Crab. So the foot of a Tortoise helps them that have the Gout in their being applyed thus, as foot to foot, hand to hand, right to right, left to left.After this manner they say, that any Animall that is barren causeth another to be barren; and of the Animall, especially the Testicles, Matrix [womb], or Urin [urine]. So they report that a woman shall not conceive, if she drink every moneth of the Urin [urine] of a Mule, or any thing steeped in it. If therefore we would obtain any property or Vertue, let us seek for such Animals, or such other things whatsoever, in which such a property is in a more eminent manner then in any other thing, and in these let us take that part in which such a property, or Vertue is most vigorous: as if at any time we would promote love, let us seek some Animall which is most loving, of which kind are Pigeons, Turtles, Sparrows, Swallows, Wagtailes: and in these take those members, or parts, in which the Venerall [venereal, i.e. sexual] appetite is most vigorous, such as the heart, testicles, matrix [womb], yard [penis], sperme, and menstrues. And it must be done at that time when these Animals have this affection most intense: for then they do provoke, and draw love. In like manner to increase boldness, let us look for a Lyon [lion], or a Cock, and of these let us take the heart, eyes, or forehead. And so we must understand that which Psellus the Platonist saith, viz. that Dogs, Crows, and Cocks conduce much to watchfulness: also the Nightingale, and Bat, and horn Owle [horned owl], and in these the heart, head, and eyes especially. Therefore it is said, if any shall carry the heart of a Crow, or a Bat about him, he shall not sleep till he cast it away from him. The same doth the head of a Bat dryed [dried], and bound to the right arme of him that is awake, for if it be put upon him when he is asleep.

It is said, that he shall not be awaked till it be taken off from him. After the same manner doth a Frog, and an Owle

make one talkative and of these specially the tongue, and heart; So the tongue also of a Water-frog laid under the

head, makes a man speak in his sleep, and the heart of a scrich-Owle [screech-owl] laid upon the left breast of a

woman that is asleep is said to make her utter all her secrets. The same also the heart of the horn Owle [horned owl]

is said to do, also the sewet [suet] of a Hare laid upon the breast of one that is asleep. Upon the same account do

Animals that are long lived, conduce to long life; and whatsoever things have a power in themselves, to renew

themselves, conduce to the renovation of our body, and restoring of youth, which Physitians [physicians] have often

professed they know to be true; as is manifest of the Viper, and Snake. And it is known that Harts renew their old

age by the eating of Snakes. After the same manner the Phoenix is renewed by a fire which she makes for her self; and

the like vertue there is in a Pellican [pelican], whose right foot being put under warm dung, after three moneths [months] there is of that generated a Pellican [pelican]. Therefore some Physitians [physicians] by some certain confections made of Vipers, and Hellebor [hellebore], and the flesh of some such kind of Animals do restore youth, and indeed do sometimes restore it so, as Medea restored old Pileas. It is also believed that the blood of a Bear, if it be sucked out of her wound, doth increase strength of body, because that Animall is the strongest creature.
Chap. xvi. How the operations of several Vertues pass from one thing into another, and are communicated one to the other.

Thou must know, that so great is the power of naturall things, that they not only work upon all things that are neer them, by their Vertue, but also besides this, they infuse into them a like power, through which by the same Vertue

they also work upon other things, as we see in the Loadstone, which Stone indeed doth not only draw Iron Rings, but also infuseth a Vertue into the Rings themselves, whereby they can do the same, which Austin [Augustine] and Albertus [Magnus] say they saw. After this manner it is, as they say, that a common harlot, grounded in boldness, and impudence doth infect all that are neer her, by this property, whereby they are made like her self. Therefore they say that if any one shall put on the inward garment of an Harlot, or shall have about him that looking glass, which she daily looks into, he shall thereby become bold, confident, impudent, and wanton. In like manner they say, that a cloth that was about a dead Corpse hath received from thence the property of sadness, and melancholy; and that the halter wherewith a man was hanged hath certain wonderfull properties. The like story tels Pliny, if any shall put a green Lizard made blind, together with Iron, or Gold Rings into a glass-vessel, putting under them some earth, and then shutting the vessel, and when it appears that the Lizard hath received his sight, shall put him out of the glass, that those Rings shall help sore eyes. The same may be done with Rings, and a Weesel [weasel], whose eyes after they are with any kind of prick put out, it is certain are restored to sight again. Upon the same account Rings are put for a certain time in the nest of Sparrows, or Swallows, which afterwards are used to procure love, and favor.
Chap. xvii. How by enmity and friendship the vertues of things are to be tryed, and found out.

In the next place it is requisite that we consider that all things have a friendliness, and enmity amongst themselves, and every thing hath something that it fears & dreads, that is an enemy, and destructive to it; and on the contrary something that it rejoyceth, and delighteth in, and is strengthened by. So in the Elements, Fire is an enemy to Water, and Aire to Earth, but yet they agree amongst themselves. And again, in Celestiall bodies, Mercury, Jupiter, the Sun, and Moon are friends to Saturn; Mars, and Venus enemies to him, all the Planets besides Mars are friends to Jupiter, also all besides Venus hate Mars; Jupiter, and Venus love the Sun, Mars, Mercury, and the Moon are enemies to him, all besides Saturne love Venus; Jupiter, Venus, and Saturne are friends to Mercury, the Sun, Moon, and Mars his enemies. Jupiter, Venus, Saturne are friends to the Moon, Mars, and Mercury her enemies. There is another kind of enmity amongst the Stars, viz. when they have opposite houses; as Saturne to the Sun and Moon, Jupiter to Mercury, Mars to Venus. And their enmity is stronger, whose exaltations are opposite: as of Saturne, and the Sun; of Jupiter, and Mars; of Venus, and Mercury. But their friendship is the strongest, who agree in nature, quality, substance, and power; as Mars with the Sun, as Venus with the Moon, as Jupiter with Venus, as also their friendship whose exaltation is in the house of another, as that of Saturne with Venus, of Jupiter with the Moon, of Mars with Saturn, of the Sun with Mars, of Venus with Jupiter, of the Moon with Venus. And of what sort the friendships, and enmities of the superiours be, such are the inclinations of things subjected to them in these inferiour. These dispositions therefore of friendship, and enmity are nothing else but certain inclinations of things of the one to another, desiring such, and such a thing if it be absent, and to move towards it, unless it be hindered, and to acquiess [acquiesce] in it when it is obtained, shunning the contrary, and dreading the approach of it, and not resting in, or being contented with it. Heraclitus therefore being guided by this opinion, professed that all things were made by enmity & friendship. Now the inclinations of Friendship are such in Vegetables and Minerals, as is that attractive inclination, which the Loadstone hath upon Iron, and the Emrald [emerald] upon riches, and favour; the Jasper upon the birth of any thing, and the Stone Achates upon Eloquence; In like manner there is a kind of Bituminous Clay that draws Fire, and leaps into it, wheresoever it sees it: Even so doth the root of the Hearb [herb] Aproxis draw Fire from afar off. Also the same inclination there is betwixt the male palme, and female: whereof when the bough of one shall touch the bough of the other, they fold themselves into mutual embraces, neither doth the female bring forth fruit without the male. And the Almond tree, when she is alone is less fruitfull.

The Vines love the Elme, and the Olive-tree, and myrtle love one the other: also the Olive-tree, and Fig tree. Now in Animals there is amity betwixt the Blackbird, and Thrush, betwixt the Crow, and Heron, betwixt Peacocks, and Pigeons, Turtles, and Parrats [parrots]. Whence Sappho writes to Phaon.To Birds unlike oftimes joyned are white Doves; Also the Bird that's green, black Turtle loves.Again, the Whale, and the little Fish his guide are friendly. Neither is this amity in Animals amongst themselves, but also with other things, as with Metals, Stones, and Vegetables, so the Cat delights in the Hearb [herb] Nip [catnip], by rubbing her self upon which she is said to conceive without a male; and there be Mares in Cappadocia, that expose themselves to the blast of the wind, and by the attraction thereof conceive. So Frogs, Toads, Snakes, and all manner of creeping poisonous things delight in the Plant called Pas-flower, of whom, as the Physitians [physicians] say, if any one eat, he shall dye [die] with laughing. The Tortoise also when he is hunted by the Adder, eats Origanum [origano], and is thereby strengthened: and the Stork, when he hath eat Snakes, seeks for a remedy in Origanum [origano]: and the Weesell [weasel], when he goes to fight with the Basilisk, eats Rue, whence we come to know that Origanum [origano], and Rue are effectuall against poison. So in some Animals there is an imbred skil, and medicinall art; for when the Toad is wounded with a bite or poison of another Animall, he is wont to go to Rue, or Sage, and Rub the place wounded, and so escapes the danger of the poison. So men have learned many excellent remedies of diseases, & vertues of things from bruits [brutes]; So Swallows have shewed us that Sallendine is very medicinable for the sight, with which they cure the eyes of their young, and the pye when she is sick, puts a Bay-leafe into her nest, and is recovered. In like maner, Cranes, Dawes [jackdaws], Partriges [partridges], Blackbirds purge their nauseous stomacks [stomachs] with the same, with which also Crows allay the poison of the Chameleon; and the Lyon [lion], if he be feavorish [feverish], is recovered by eating of an Ape. The Lapwing being surfetted [surfeited] with eating of Grapes, cures himself with Southernwood; so the Harts have taught us that the Hearb [herb] Ditany is very good to draw out Darts; for they being wounded with an Arrow, cast it out by eating of this Hearb [herb]: the same do Goats in Candy. So Hinds, a little before they bring forth, purge themselves with a certain Hearb [herb] called Mountain Osier. Also they that are hurt with Spiders, seek a remedy by eating of Crabs: Swine also being hurt by Snakes cure themselves by eating of them; and Crows when they perceive they are poisoned with a kinde of French poison, seek for cure in the Oake; Elephants, when they have swallowed a Chameleon help themselves with the wild olive. Bears being hurt with Mandrakes, escape the danger by eating of Pismires [ants]. Geese, Ducks, and such like watery fowle, cure themselves with the Hearb [herb] called will-sage. Pigeons, Turtles, Hens, with the Hearb [herb] called Pellitory of the wall. Cranes with Bull-rushes [bulrushes]. Leopards cure themselves, being hurt, with the HEarb [herb] called Wolfes-bane, by mans dung: Boars with Ivy, Hinds with the Hearb [herb] called Cinnara.
Chapter xviii. Of the Inclinations of Enmities.

On the contrary there are inclinations of Emnities, and they are as it were the odium, and anger, indignation, and a certain kind of obstinate contrariety of nature, so that any thing shuns its contrary, and drives it away out of its presence. Such kinds of inclinations hath Rhubarb against Choller [choler], Treacle against poison, the Saphir [sapphire] Stone against hot biles [boils], and feavorish [feverish] heats, and diseases of the eyes; the Amethyst against drunkenness, the Jasper against Flux of blood, and offensive imaginations, the Emrald [emerald], and Agnus Castus against Lust, Achates against poison, Piony [peony] against the Falling sickness, Corall against the
ebullition of black Choller [choler], and pains of the stomack [stomach]. The Topaze against spirituall heats, such as are covetousness, lust, and all manner of excesses of love. The like inclination is there also of Pismire [ants] against the Hearb [herb] Origanum [origano], and the wing of a Bat, and the heart of a Lapwing, from the presence of which they flie [fly]. Also Origanum [origano] is contrary to a certain poisonous fly, which cannot endure the Sun, and resists Salamanders, and loathes Cabbage with such a deadly hatred, that they destroy one the other; so Cucumbers hate oile, and will run themselves into a ring least they should touch it. And it is said that the Gall of a Crow makes men afraid, and drives them sway from where it is, as also certain other things; so a Diamond doth disagree with the Loadstone, that being set by it, it will not suffer Iron to be drawn to it; and sheep fly from Frog-parsley
as from some deadly thing: and that which is more wonderfull, nature hath pictured the sign of this death in the livers of sheep, in which the very figure of Frog-parsley being described, doth naturally appear; So Goats do so hate garden basil, as if there were nothing more pernicious. And again, amongst Animals, Mice, and Weesels [weasels] do disagree; whence it is said that Mice will not touch Cheese, if the brains of a Weesel [weasel] be put in the rennet, and besides that the Cheese will not be corrupt with age. So a Lizard is so contrary to Scorpions, that it makes them afraid with its very sight, as also it puts them into a cold sweat; therefore they are killed with the oile of them, which oile also cures the wounds made by Scorpions. There is also an enmity betwixt Scorpions, and Mice: wherefore if a Mouse be applyed to a prick or wound made by a Scorpion, it cures it, as it is reported. There is also an enmity betwixt Scorpions, and Stalabors, Aspes, and Waspes. It is reported also that nothing is so much an enemy to Snakes as Crabs, and that if Swine be hurt therewith they eat them, and are cured. The Sun also being in Cancer, Serpents are tormented. Also the Scorpion, and Crocodile kil [kill] one the other; and if the Bird Ibis doth but touch a crocodile with one of his feathers, he makes him immovable; the Bird called Bustard flies away at the sight of a horse; and a Hart runs away at the sight of a Ram, as also of a Viper. An Elephant trembles at the hearing of the grunting of a Hog, so doth a Lyon [lion] at the sight of a Cock: And Panthers will not touch them that are annointed [anointed] all over with the broth of a Hen, especially if Garlick hath been boiled in it. There is also enmity betwixt Foxes, and Swans, Buls [bulls], and Daws [jackdaws]. Amongst Birds also some are at a perpetuall strife one with another, as also with other Animals, as Daws [jackdaws], and Owles, the Kite, and Crows, the Turtle, and Ring-taile, Egepis, and Eagles, Harts, and Dragons. Also amongst Water Animals there is enmity, as betwixt Dolphins, and Whirpools, Mullets, and Pikes, Lampreys, and Congers: Also the fish called Pourcontrel makes the Lobster so much afraid, that the Lobster seeing the other but neer him, is struck dead. The Lobster, and Conger tear one the other. The Civet Cat is said to stand so in awe of the Panther, that he hath no power to resist him, or touch his skin: and they say that if the skins of both of them be hanged up one against the other, the haires of the Panthers skin fall off. And Orus Apollo saith in his Hieroglyphicks, if any one be girt about with the skin of the Civet Cat, that he may pass safely through the middle of his enemies, and not at all be afraid. Also the Lamb is very much afraid of the Wolf, and flies from him. And they say that if the taile, or skin, or head of a Wolf be hanged upon the sheep-coate, the sheep are much troubled, and cannot eat their meat for fear. And Pliny makes mention of a Bird, called Marlin,
that breaks Crows Eggs; whose young are so annoyed by the Fox that she also will pinch, and pull the Foxes whelps, and the Fox her self also: which when the Crows see, they help the Fox against her, as against a common enemy. The litle Bird called a Linnet living in Thistles, hates Asses, because they eat the Flowers of Thistles. Also there is such a bitter enmity betwixt the litle bird called Esalon, and the Asse, that their blood will not mix together, and that at the braying of the Asse both the eggs and young of the Esalon perish. There is also such a disagreement betwixt the Olive-tree and a Harlot, that if she Plant it, it will either be alwayes unfruitfull, or altogether wither. A Lyon [lion] fears nothing so much as fired Torches, and will be tamed by nothing so much as by these: and the Wolf fears neither sword, nor spear, but a stone, by the throwing of which a wound being made, worms breed in the Wolf. A Horse fears a Camell, so that he cannot endure to see so much as his picture. An Elephant when he rageth, is quieted by seeing of a Cock. A Snake is afraid of a man that is naked, but pursues a man that is clothed. A mad Bull is tamed by being tyed to a Fig-tree. Amber draws all things to it besides Garden Basill, and those things, which are smeared with oile, betwixt which there is a kinde of a naturall Antipathy.
Chapter xix. How the Vertues of things are to be tryed and found out, which are in them specifically, or in any one Individuall by way of speciall gift.

Moreover thou must consider that the Vertues of things are in some things according to the species, as boldness, and courage in a Lyon [lion], & Cock: fearfulness in a Hare, or Lamb, ravenousness in a Wolf, treachery, and deceitfulness in a Fox, flattery in a Dog, covetousness in a Crow, and Daw [jackdaw], pride in a Horse, anger in a Tygre [tiger], and Boar, sadness, and melancholy in a Cat, lust in a sparrow, and so of the rest. For the greatest part of naturall Vertues doth follow the species. Yet some are in things individually; as there be some men which do so wonderfully abhor the sight of a Cat, that they cannot look upon her without quaking; which fear it is manifest is not in them as they are men. And Avicen tels of a man that lived in his time, whom all poisonous things did shun, all of them dying, which did by chance bite him, he himself not being hurt, and Albertus reports that in a City of the Ubians he saw a wench who would catch Spiders to eat them, and being much pleased with such a kind of meat, was wonderfully nourished therewith. So is boldness in a Harlot, fearfulness in a Thief. And upon this account it is that Philosophers say, that any particular thing that never was sick, is good against any manner of sickness: therefore they say that a bone of a dead man, who never had a feavor [fever], being laid upon the patient, frees him of his quartane. There are also many singular vertues infused into particular things by Celestiall bodies, as we have shewed before.

Chapter xx. That naturall Vertues are in some things throughout their whole substance, and in other things in certain parts, and members.Again thou must consider, that the vertues of things are in some things in the whole (i.e.) the whole substance of them, or in all their parts, as that little fish Echeneis, which is said to stop a ship by its meer touch, this it doth not do according to any particular part, but according to the whole substance. So the Civet Cat hath this in its whole substance, that Dogs by the very touch of his shadow hold their peace. So Salendine is good for the sight, not according to any one but all its parts, not more in the root then in the leaves, and seeds; and so of the rest. But some vertues are in things according to some parts of it, viz. only in the tongue, or eyes, or some other members, and parts; so in the eyes of a Basilisk, is a most violent power to kill men, assoon as they see them: the like power is there in the eyes of the Civet Cat, which makes any Animall that it hath looked upon, to stand still, to be amazed, and not able to move it self. The like vertue is there in the eyes of some Wolfes [wolves], which if they see a man first, make him amazed, and so hoarse, that if he would cry out, he hath not the use of his voice: Of this Virgil makes mention, when he sings, Moeris is dumb, hath lost his voice, and why? The Wolf on Moeris first hath cast his eye. So also there were some certain women in Scythia, and amongst the Illyrians, and Triballians, who as often as they looked angrily upon any man, were said to slay him. Also we read of a certain people of Rhodes, called Telchines, who corrupted all things with their sight, wherefore Jupiter drowned them. Therefore Witches, when they would after this manner work by witchcraft, use the eyes of such kind of Animals in their waters for the eyes, for the like effects.In like manner do Pismires [ants] fly from the heart of a Lapwing, not from the head, foot, or eyes. So the gall of Lizards being bruised in Water is said to gather Weesels [weasels] together, not the taile or the head of it; and the gall of Goats put into the Earth in a brazen Vesel [vessel], gathers Frogs together; and a Goats liver is an enemy to Butterflies and all Maggots, and dogs shun them that have the heart of a Dog about them, and Foxes will not touch those poultry that have eaten the liver of a Fox. So divers things have divers vertues dispersed variously through several parts, as they are from above infused into them according to the diversity of things to be received; as in a mans body the bones receive nothing but life, the eyes sight, the ears hearing. And there is in mans body a certain little bone, which the Hebrews call LVZ, of the bigness of a pulse that is husked, which is subject to no corruption, neither is it overcome with Fire, but is alwaies preserved unhurt, out of which, as they say, as a Plant out of the seed, our Animall bodies shall in the Resurrection of the dead spring up. And these vertues are not cleared by reason, but by experience.
Read Part one of the Grimoire - The First book of Occult Philosophy - Cornelius Agrippa


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